Background and Definitions

At the outset of the planning for CCLI, the leadership team worked to synthesize the literature that would provide the theoretical grounding for the CCLI framework for change. A link to the document, The Inclusive Museum: A Framework for Sustainable and Authentic Institutional Change, a table of contents, and an excerpt from the document are included below.

Literature Review
The Inclusive Museum: A Framework for Sustainable and Authentic Institutional Change
by Cecilia Garibay and Laura Huerta Migus (Full Document, .pdf)

CCLI Briefs
CCLI Brief #1 - Organizational Change | CCLI Brief #2 - Becoming a Learning Organization | CCLI Brief #3 - Leadership During Change.pdf | CCLI Brief #4 - Asset Based Approach to DEAI

Table of Contents
Case Literature on Museums and Diversity
Organizational Change
Organizational Change Models
Systems approach to change
The learning organization
Strategic Diversity Management
Cultural Competence
A Framework for Authentic and Sustainable Change

Issues of museum accessibility and inclusiveness have been a constant source of attention in the sector for more than twenty years. Museums, as cultural institutions whose focus is curating social learning experiences for visitors – either through artifacts and objects (i.e., “collections) or inquiry-based built environments. Much discussion in the industry has focused on inclusion in curating experiences, considering how to balance “traditional” content (reflecting dominant culture, in this case Northern European norms of child development, scientific learning, etc.) and “culturally relevant” content (reflecting non-dominant cultural narratives and worldviews). Especially in non-collecting museums, such as children’s museums and science centers, museum experiences are designed around interactions and content which are meant to be universal or empirical truths, such as norms for family learning and basic principles of scientific phenomena. While these experiences are rarely explicitly framed as reflecting the history and values of dominant cultural groups, their presentation as universal or “culture-less.” However, as is noted in the 2009 National Research Council report:

In other words, there is no cultureless or neutral perspective, no more than a photograph or painting could be without perspective. Everything is cultured, including the layout of designed experiences, such as museums, and the practices associated with teaching science in school (Bell, et al, 2009, p. 214).

A challenge for many museums is how to navigate various perspectives while still preserving the identity and serving the mission of the institution (Snir, 2011) – how are non-dominant cultures and cultural knowledge given space in museums? How can culturally-relevant experiences be cultivated in an equitable way? For the purposes of this document, successful curation of culturally-relevant content and experiences is approached as an outcome of culturally competent organizational practices in museums. Through review of evidence drawn from the fields of museum and visitor studies, organizational development, and cultural competence and diversity management, we seek to develop a comprehensive framework for museum leaders to transform individual institutions and the museum field at large in maintaining their elite status and cultivating a new image as non-elitist social and cultural spaces.



Cultural Competence is a process of lifelong learning.  It results in knowledge, skills, behaviors, and attitudes that allow us to work effectively with others from different cultural backgrounds, increases the ability of organizations to maximize the benefits of diversity within their workforces, and improves the services we offer to our various stakeholders.

Culture refers to integrated patterns of human behavior that include the language, thoughts, communications, actions, customs, beliefs, values, and institutions of racial, ethnic, religious, or social groups.

Diversity encompasses all those differences that make us unique, including but not limited to race, color, ethnicity, language, nationality, sexual orientation, religion, gender, socio-economic status, age, and physical and mental ability.  A diverse group, community or organization is one in which a variety of social and cultural characteristics exist.

Equity acknowledges differences in privilege, access, and need, and supports space for appropriate adaptation and accommodation.

Inclusion denotes an environment where each individual member of a diverse group feels valued, is able to fully develop his or her potential and contributes to the organization’s success.

Download Creating Common Language

Cohort Thoughts on Background and Definitions

Tanya Butler Holder, Associate Director of Administration, Long Island Children's Museum